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(solution) Case 11 Equal Exchange: Doing Well by Doing Good1 Rev. Dr.


need help with a strategic management Case Analysis. would like answers to be very detailed and in depth. 

Name of case is
Case 11

 

Equal Exchange: Doing Well by Doing Good©1 Rev. Dr. Benita W. Harris

 

Asbury United Methodist Church Frank Shipper, PhD

 

Perdue School of Business, Salisbury University Karen P. Manz

 

Author and Researcher Charles C. Manz, PhD

 

Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts © Vividfour / Shutterstock.com Introduction

 

In 1983, Rink Dickinson, Jonathan Rosenthal, and

 

Michael Rozyne were all recent college graduates and

 

working for a food co-op warehouse in the Boston area.

 

They began to question the system, asking questions such

 

as, ?What if food could be traded in a way that is honest

 

and fair, a way that empowers both farmers and consumers? What if trade supported family farms? use of organic

 

methods rather than methods that harm the environment?? Almost simultaneously, they started to hear about

 

groups in Europe engaged in a concept called fair trade.

 

The advocates of fair trade wanted to ensure that the

 

producers of products such as coffee, tea, and chocolate

 

would receive a better price for their crops while also providing support for improvements to their environmental,

 

social, and political conditions. Dickinson, Rosenthal,

 

and Rozyne liked the idea. According to Dickinson, they

 

??were basically food co-op people, interested in connecting small, local farmers with consumers to change

 

the marketplace,? however, it was not their intention to

 

found a company. Instead, they took the idea to the board

 

of directors of the co-op warehouse. Half the board supported the idea and half voted against it. It became apparent to them that if they were going to pursue their vision,

 

they were going to have to do it themselves. Over the next three years, they met once a month to

 

develop their plan and raise the capital to establish their

 

own organization. The three young entrepreneurs quickly

 

learned that no institution ? including organizations that

 

specialized in high-impact social justice ventures ? would

 

lend them money. Thus, fundraising focused on family,

 

friends, and their contacts. According to Dickinson, the

 

general pitch was, ?We want you to invest in this project

 

and it is almost guaranteed to lose all of your money.?

 

On those terms, they were able to raise $100,000. While

 

raising money, Dickinson said they used their jobs to

 

learn about cooperatives, small farmers, entrepreneurship, marketing, and ?making mistakes, right and left.?

 

The food co-op gave them ?a great environment to learn

 

some skills.? In 1986, Dickinson, Rosenthal, and Rozyne

 

were ready to launch Equal Exchange (EE). By that time,

 

their ambition was ??to change the way food is grown,

 

bought, and sold around the world.?

 

EE embarked on its pioneering efforts to sell fair trade

 

products in the U.S. with coffee from Nicaragua. From the

 

beginning, EE has paid its producers, typically small farmers indigenous to their region, an above market price for

 

their products out of a desire to help provide a better, more

 

stable income and to more equitably distribute the proceeds

 

of the final sales. EE prominently displays the company

 

­slogan on each product ? ?Small Farmers, Big Change.?

 

119 CHE-HITT11E-13-0403-CaseStudy11.indd 119 22/10/13 2:47 PM 120 Part 4: Cases Not content to just ??change the way food is grown,

 

bought, and sold around the world,? the founders of EE

 

formally adopted a hybrid worker-owner co-op structure in

 

1990. They believed this ownership structure would make

 

its employees feel valued and, in turn, they would invest

 

their whole being in the organization. Key to this new

 

structure was shared employee ownership. Each workerowner buys one share of Class A voting stock; no one did,

 

could, or can own more than one share of voting stock.

 

Worker-owners can also buy unlimited shares of Class B,

 

non-voting stock. This structure distributes power, and

 

potentially leadership, equally across all worker-­owners on

 

a democratic one-person/one-share/one-vote basis. 2012

 

Twenty-seven years later not only is EE doing good ? it

 

is doing well (see Exhibits 1 and 2). EE sales have grown

 

from zero in 1986 to $1 million in 1991 to $42.8 million

 

in 2010.2 In 2011, sales increased another 9 percent to

 

$46.8 million and EE projected that sales would exceed

 

$50 million in 2012. All EE products (coffee, tea, chocolate bars, cocoa, sugar, bananas, almonds, and olive oil)

 

are fair trade and most products are organic as well.

 

Co-Executive Directors, Rink Dickinson and Rob

 

Everts and the worker-owners of EE are still interested

 

in changing the world through socially responsible business. Its mission statement reveals the heart of EE:

 

? to build long-term trade partnerships that are economically just and environmentally sound, to foster mutually beneficial relationships between farmers and consumers

 

and to demonstrate, through our success, the contribution

 

of worker co-operatives and fair trade to a more equitable,

 

democratic, and sustainable world.

 

In 2006, EE announced, ?Our Vision in 20 Years? [To

 

build] a vibrant, mutually cooperative community of two

 

million committed participants trading fairly one billion

 

dollars a year in a way that transforms the world.? Functional Areas at EE

 

To fulfill its mission and vision, the founders developed

 

a hybrid model that combined worker-ownership with

 

a cooperative model to coordinate the functions. EE

 

is a ­relatively small company. With approximately 100

 

worker-owners and geographically dispersed operations,

 

worker-owners may fulfill multiple functions. EE Governance Model EE has a board of directors that is elected by the workerowners. The worker-owners nominate candidates for the

 

six inside board member positions and a joint, three-­

 

person committee ? comprised of a worker-owner, a board

 

member, and a member of the management c­ ommittee ?

 

nominates candidates for the three outside seats. The

 

worker-owners elect all nine seats, three each year.

 

In turn, the board of directors hires EE?s Executive

 

Director/s. Currently, the position is called ?The Office

 

of Executive Directors? as it is shared by Dickinson and

 

Everts. They are mutually responsible for hiring employees Exhibit 1? Sales Growth

 

$50,000,000

 

$45,000,000

 

$40,000,000

 

$35,000,000

 

$30,000,000

 

$25,000,000

 

$20,000,000

 

$15,000,000

 

$10,000,000

 

$5,000,000

 

2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 $0 Source: This graph was constructed from financial data published by EE on the Web at http://www.equalexchange.coop/investing. CHE-HITT11E-13-0403-CaseStudy11.indd 120 22/10/13 2:47 PM 121 Case 11: Equal Exchange: Doing Well by Doing Good© Exhibit 2? Profit/Loss (pre-tax)

 

$1,760,000

 

$1,560,000

 

$1,360,000

 

$1,160,000

 

$960,000

 

$760,000

 

$560,000

 

$360,000

 

$160,000 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 ?$40,000 Source: This graph was constructed from financial data published by EE on the Web at http://www.equalexchange.coop/investing. who, after significant input from the other worker-owners,

 

may later become worker-owners themselves.

 

It is important to note that the Executive Directors

 

are not board members. According to Lynsey Miller,

 

Market Development Leader and a former board member, ?They?re at the board table, but they don?t have votes.

 

They are very active in that discussion and agenda setting.? Thus, ultimately, the worker-owners who elect the

 

board and hold two-thirds of the seats are responsible for

 

hiring the Executive Directors.

 

All members of the board serve three-year terms.

 

Instead of electing a new board every year and to promote board continuity, two inside directors and one outside director are elected each year.

 

This circular structure reinforces the following four

 

concepts at the heart of the EE governance model:

 

1. the right to vote (one vote per worker-owner, not per

 

share);

 

2. the right to serve as leader (e.g., board director, or

 

other elected office);

 

3. the right to information;

 

4. the right to speak your mind.

 

EE provides the following elaboration of this model on

 

its Web site:

 

A worker cooperative is an alternative for-profit structure based upon standard democratic principles. It is not

 

designed to maximize profits, nor returns to investors,

 

but rather to bring to the workplace many of the rights CHE-HITT11E-13-0403-CaseStudy11.indd 121 and responsibilities that we hold as citizens in our communities. These principles include one-person/one-vote

 

equality; open access to information (i.e., open-book management); free speech; and the equitable distribution of

 

resources (such as income) ?

 

The delegation of responsibilities is very much like that of

 

conventional firms ? which allows for efficiency ? except

 

that at EE those at the ?bottom? of the organizational

 

chart are, as owners, also at the ?top? of the same chart.3

 

Everts describes the genesis of this governance model as

 

follows:

 

From the beginning, it has been a culture in a context of participation and shared ownership of strong management. The

 

founders were quite clear that ownership would be shared

 

and that ultimately, accountability for the highest level decisions would be shared and that we would attempt to build

 

a strong cultural of internal participation and democracy.

 

There was no interest in having it be a collective.

 

One important position in this governance model is

 

the Worker-Owner Coordinator. The worker-owners elect

 

this individual, but this person is not a board member. The

 

Worker-Owner Coordinator has many duties, the most

 

public and demanding of which is facilitating the cooperative meetings that are held at least quarterly. Overall, the

 

Coordinator is often akin to a police officer directing traffic; he or she does not make the rules of the cooperative,

 

but is empowered by the cooperative to keep the system 22/10/13 2:47 PM 122 moving smoothly so necessary work may be completed. To

 

do this, the Coordinator directs the jostling interests, opinions, and emotions of the members as best he or she can.

 

One goal is to strike a balance between members? rights to

 

ask questions, be heard, and press for changes with maintaining a safe, respectful, and constructive environment.

 

The Coordinator is automatically the representative

 

of the worker-owners on certain ?tripartite? committees,

 

representing the board and management second. One

 

example is the committee that nominates outside board

 

members. The Coordinator also leads the 10-member

 

worker-owner cabinet. The cabinet is a group of volunteers, accountable to the Coordinator. They carry out

 

essential cooperative functions such as maintaining the

 

internal education program and conducting the complex, multi-ballot, multi-site elections.

 

A secondary function for the Coordinator is to give

 

the ?State of the Cooperative? presentation at the annual

 

meeting in May. This presentation provides an assessment

 

of how well EE is functioning as a cooperative, not as a

 

business per se. The worker-owners can call a meeting of

 

the cooperative by presenting signatures of 10 percent of

 

the worker-owners to the Coordinator. If a worker-owner

 

wants to bring something to an upcoming meeting and has

 

either the Coordinator?s consent or the required number

 

of signatures, the Coordinator is responsible for putting

 

the individual on the agenda and working with that person

 

so that her/his idea is well thought out and presented.

 

As can be seen by this description of the governance

 

model, to be successful, EE must negotiate complex communication and coordination processes. Thus, recruiting, selecting, hiring, developing, and retaining employees who can operate within this governance model and

 

flex with the needs of the organization is critical. Human Resource Management

 

The worker-owners focus considerable attention on

 

human resource management because, with the ownership culture that exists on a daily basis, worker-owners

 

must be a good fit. Recruitment is probably EE?s area of

 

least worry. Whenever it does advertise an open position, it has multiple applicants. Because of its reputation,

 

primarily spread by word of mouth, EE has no problem

 

obtaining a significant and qualified applicant pool. The

 

hiring process, outlined in Exhibit 3, is quite extensive

 

and considered critical to the success of EE. Two unusual

 

aspects of the hiring process include a three-stage interview and the fact that the hiring process is not considered complete until after the review process and after the

 

new hire has been on the job for three months. CHE-HITT11E-13-0403-CaseStudy11.indd 122 Part 4: Cases Once hired, new employees are matched with a mentor and put on probation for one year. New employee

 

turnover during the first year is approximately 5 to

 

10 percent. After the first year, all worker-owners vote on

 

whether to offer worker-ownership status to the employee

 

(i.e., the opportunity to join the cooperative). Before the

 

vote, the employee?s mentor and the employee?s supervisor circulate written statements on behalf of the candidate. With rare exceptions, only new employees who

 

have fared well reach this point; new hires that have been

 

poor employees or seem ill-suited for the co-op are generally weeded out by this time. Almost all worker-owner

 

candidacy votes are taken online, but current workerowners may also request an in-person meeting for a discussion and vote. In such a case, all worker-owners are

 

free to discuss the individual?s fit with EE before taking

 

the vote. Worker-owners can vote ?yes,? ?no,? or ?abstain.?

 

Unless 20 percent or more worker-owners vote ?no,? the

 

candidate is welcomed into the co-op. Over 95 percent of

 

employees who make it to the one-year point are accepted

 

as worker-owners. Because of its infrequency, when one

 

is not accepted, it can be a traumatic event for all.

 

During the probation period (first year of employment) the employee is expected to participate in a curriculum designed to teach about the mission and vision of

 

EE, how they work, and to prepare the candidate for the

 

responsibilities of worker-ownership and governance.

 

The worker-owners feel it is very important to develop

 

Exhibit 3? Outline of Hiring Process

 

I. Executive Director Determines Need for Position

 

II. Executive Director and Chair of Hiring Committee

 

Agree on Process

 

III. Hiring Committee Develops Tactics

 

IV. 100 Point Rating System (20 points for each category)

 

a. Fit (mandatory)

 

b. Team (mandatory)

 

c. Communication (mandatory)

 

d. Option 1 (e.g. skills, aptitudes)

 

e. Option 2

 

V. Recruiting

 

a. Defining Target Applicants

 

b. Internal Posting

 

c. Networks

 

d. Previous Applicants

 

e. External Advertising

 

VI. Essay Questions

 

VII. First Round Interviews ? Conference Calls with Committee

 

VIII. Second Round Interview ? In Person, or by Phone

 

IX. Third Round Interview ? In-person Interview

 

X. Reference Checks

 

XI. Offer Letter ? Delivered by Mail for Signature

 

XII. Three Month Review

 

Source: Condensed from company documents, 2005. 22/10/13 2:47 PM 123 Case 11: Equal Exchange: Doing Well by Doing Good© and strengthen its worker-ownership culture. To support the development of the culture, EE has developed

 

an Owners? Manual that is over two hundred pages in

 

length. To both support this effort for new employees

 

and to reinforce the worker-ownership culture for all,

 

?Exchange Time? is held every Thursday morning for

 

one and a half hours. Exchange Time lectures and discussions cover topics such as fair trade, co-op history,

 

and issues affecting EE?s farmer partners, among others. New employees are essentially required to attend

 

while all other employees are encouraged to participate.

 

The discussions are recorded and shared with remote

 

employees and regional offices via EE?s intranet. Cody

 

Squire, who joined EE right out of college a few years

 

ago, enthusiastically described Exchange Time as:

 

It?s one structured thing that you can depend on having

 

every week just to learn about something new, to look

 

deeper into something you already know about, or to hear

 

from somebody who has just returned from working with

 

farmer co-ops in Peru.

 

In addition to Exchange Time, EE has ?10 percent

 

time. Employees can use 10 percent of their work time for

 

purposes unrelated to their core functions. This time can

 

be used to cross-train, work on governance committees,

 

or learn more about EE?s products. For example, Miller

 

used her 10 percent time to serve on the board of directors, where she helped create the 20-year vision for EE.

 

Mike and his colleague in Quality Control, Danielle, led a

 

program called ?The Brew Crew,? a year-long curriculum

 

on coffee. People from other departments participate in

 

coffee quality trainings every two weeks for a year.

 

To develop future leaders, EE uses an unusual 360

 

degree peer evaluation process in which peer, subordinate,

 

superior, and self-evaluations are performed. The unusual

 

aspect of EE?s process is that all who provide feedback

 

must sign their forms. In other words, the feedback is not

 

anonymous. Alison Booth, Manager of EE?s espresso bar

 

in Seattle, Washington, described how it worked for her:

 

If I?m being evaluated, my supervisor and I will have access

 

to them? Sometimes they are just nice to hear, but not terribly helpful; sometimes they?re a little hard to hear. Most

 

of the time, people are really careful to give constructive

 

criticism, to give specific examples of things we could do

 

better or things we did well.

 

Then, I do a self-evaluation and my boss does a supervisor?s evaluation. He combines his thoughts with my evaluation and the peer evaluations and pulls them all together.

 

We talk about what?s working, areas for improvement, and

 

what to focus on in the next year. CHE-HITT11E-13-0403-CaseStudy11.indd 123 To further increase intellectual capital, EE maintains a

 

library to which all employees have access. Mike described

 

the library as, ?Awesome ? it?s full of DVDs and books

 

on anything from economics to feminism to fair trade

 

to.?? The worker-owners also have responsibility for

 

the education committee, originally a board committee.

 

EE identifies education as a ?? vital function. In shifting accountability for this committee, Worker-Owners

 

became more accountable for their own education and

 

the orientation of new employees to our co-operative.?4

 

The worker-owners staff many roles in this model

 

and share in both profits and losses. Because EE operates as a worker cooperative, profit sharing is referred to

 

as ?patronage.? ?Patronage? is a common term used in

 

cooperatives where co-op members receive a share of the

 

profits, or bear a portion of losses, based on the extent

 

they have participated in the co-op. At EE, all workerowners who have worked a full year receive the same

 

amount without regard to rank or seniority as all contributed the same amount of labor time. The total potential patronage distribution consists of 40 percent of net

 

income after state taxes and preferred dividends are paid.

 

Half of this distribution is reinvested in EE, and half is

 

paid in cash. In years of losses, the Patronage rebates are

 

charges against the retained distributions.

 

In terms of benefits, EE ?is generous? according to

 

Brian Albert, EE?s Chief Financial Officer who joined EE

 

after approximately thirty years with some well-known

 

international firms. For example, it offers all employees twelve sick days each year. A worker-owner can

 

use them for him/herself, to take care of a sick child, to

 

attend a doctor appointment, or to spend time with a

 

sick parent. Additionally, all worker-owners receive two

 

weeks of vacation for the first two years. After that, they

 

receive four weeks. After their eighth year, they receive

 

five weeks. In addition, employees receive the standard

 

holidays including the Friday after Thanksgiving.

 

EE is also generous in the area of pay, paying above

 

average for novice level jobs, but below average for

 

senior level management positions. It maintains a topto-bottom pay ratio of four-to-one. It clearly states on

 

its Web site that EE adopted this ratio to reflect the fair

 

trade ethic inside the corporation. Production

 

EE has not been content to be a single-product company.

 

Its four major products and their percentage of sales

 

are coffee (80.1 percent), chocolate (16.1 percent), tea

 

(2.7 percent), and snacks (1.1 percent). Snacks include

 

products such as Organic Tamari Roasted Almonds. 22/10/13 2:47 PM 124 Part 4: Cases In 2010, EE increased its stake in Oke USA, an importer

 

and seller of organic bananas, to 90 percent. Oke USA

 

sales were $4.4 million in 2010. In 2011, EE introduced

 

organic olive oil. Ninety percent of EE?s coffees are certified organic and 100 percent of its tea, cocoa, chocolate,

 

sugar, and bananas are certified organic.

 

To produce organic coffee, chocolate, tea, and its

 

other products for sale to others, EE first secures the

 

raw materials. The producers of these products come

 

from around the world. EE buys raw product from four

 

continents ? North and South America, Africa, and

 

Asia ? and almost exclusively from developing countries

 

(see Exhibit 4).

 

For example, coffee is grown largely in developing

 

countries and is often the second most valuable commodity (after oil) exported by them, according to John

 

M. Talbot, a sociology professor at the University of the

 

West Indies in Jamaica.i The large multinationals typically buy their raw materials from either large plantations or large sellers of coffee. The large sellers depend on

 

middlemen, often referred to as ?coyotes,? to buy coffee

 

from small growers. According to an article in the April

 

25, 2011 issue of Time magazine, Ugandan coffee farmers

 

receive 0.66 percent of the retail value of their product. In

 

contrast, the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated

 

that U.S. farmers receive 12 percent of the retail value.

 

EE buys directly from cooperatives that represent small producers, thereby helping these co-ops to

 

internalize the activity and profits formerly captured

 

by the middlemen (see comparison of supply chains

 

in Exhibit 5). EE buys raw materials from over forty

 

small farmer cooperatives in twenty-five countries at

 

prices higher than typical. In its 2009 annual report,

 

EE defined it sourcing standards as: ?? Quality - Find the best beans.

 

?? Flavor - Select sweet beans with unique flavor characteristics.

 

?? Farmer Partners - Trade with small farmer cooperatives that share our vision of community

 

empowerment.

 

?? Direct Relationships - Import directly from farmer

 

co-operatives.

 

?? Fair Price - Pay above the market price, often above

 

fair trade prices.

 

?? Environment - Support sustainable agriculture, the

 

preservation of sensitive areas, and reforestation of

 

degraded land.

 

?? Commitment - Source all our coffee according to

 

the quality of the beans and the quality of the source.

 

EE supports the cooperatives with both financial and

 

technical assistance. In its 2008 Disclosure Document to

 

Sell Class B Preferred Stock, the relationship with small

 

farmers was described as follows, ?Our Commitment:

 

we pay a fair price to the farmer, trade directly with

 

democratic co-ops, supply advanced credit, and support sustainable agriculture.? In other words, EE goes

 

beyond just paying a fair price; it pre-pays on its contracts with the cooperatives. It also provides assistance

 

to the cooperatives to ensure they can provide a high

 

quality product.

 

Mike Mowry, a quality control specialist, described

 

what he did on a trip to Nicaragua as follows:

 

We do a lot of work going down and actually training

 

about quality. Even with their quality departments, we do

 

extensive training on how to roast samples and how to cup

 

coffee.5 The whole idea is collaborating with their tasters

 

and our tasters. Exhibit 4? Where EE Buys from Small Farmers by Country, 2010

 

U.S.

 

Mexico

 

Guatemala

 

Panama

 

Ecuador

 

Peru

 

Bolivia

 

Paraguay EL Salvador

 

Nicaragua

 

Dominican Republic

 

Colombia Ethiopia Uganda

 

Tanzania India

 

Sri Lanka

 

Sumatra South Africa Source: Information taken from EE Web site at http://www.equalexchange.coop/farmer-partners. i. Cacao, the key ingredient for chocolate, is also only exported by developing countries. CHE-HITT11E-13-0403-CaseStudy11.indd 124 22/10/13 2:47 PM 125 Case 11: Equal Exchange: Doing Well by Doing Good© Exhibit 5? EE versus Conventional Supply Chain EQUAL EXCHANGE COFFEE CHAIN

 

SMALL FARMER EQUAL EXCHANGE FARMER CO-OP CONSUMER STORE OR CAFE CONVENTIONAL COFFEE CHAIN

 

SMALL

 

FARMER PROCESSOR/

 

EXPORTER MIDDLE

 

MAN COFFEE

 

COMPANY U.S.

 

BROKER STORE

 

OR CAFÉ FOOD

 

DISTRIBUTOR CONSUMER Source: EE pamphlet. EE maintains that ?great? coffee can be obtained

 

from many sources. What sets it apart is that it buys

 

?great? coffee from ?great? sources.

 

EE also provides assistance to the small farmer coops beyond food products. For example, it has provided assistance for training programs for women in

 

Guatemala, an ecotourism project in Nicaragua, and new

 

classrooms in El Salvador.

 

When all of the sourcing standards work well, quality product is shipped to EE for further processing.

 

However, sometimes EE has to break off a relationship

 

with a co-op for either quali...

 


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