Question Details

(solution) I have a 6-page paper that needs some editing/proof-reading as

I have a 6-page paper that needs some editing/proof-reading as far as passive voice, grammatical errors that I am unsure the correct fix for, and correct MLA citation assistance.  I wouldn't mind feedback if anything seems unclear so that I may fix it before submitting the assignment.  Thank you in advance!

Powles 1 Amanda Powles


Professor Tromanhauser


Intro to British Literature


October 7, 2016


Mystified by Yeats William Butler Yeats writes, ?I am deep in ?Celtic Mysticism?, the whole thing is


forming an elaborate vision? (Jeffares, "A Commentary on the Collected Poems of W. B.


Yeats", p. 26) in a letter addressed to George Russell in 1898. As a man of the


Modernism Era, Yeats? religious views, which flowed through his poetry, were


considered deplorable. His readers and critics disparaged the thought of Yeats? interest


in mysticism, spiritualism, occultism, and astrology; most explicitly depicted in, ?Sailing


to Byzantium? and ?The Second Coming.? Paradoxically, none of the criticisms halted


Yeats? potential to become one of the leading figures of twentieth-century literature.


Willian Butler Yeats was born into a Protestant family in Sandymount, Ireland on


June 13th, 1865 and was educated both in Ireland and in London. A young Yeats


studied poetry at the Metropolitan School of Art where he endured a crisis of identity


and beliefs when he met George Russell. Russell had cultivated his interest in


mysticism by gifting him a book on Buddhism. This was significant as it led to the


accentuation of both mythology and occultism in his earliest poetry collection, which


was published in 1889. With the turn of the century, Yeats? poetry shifted towards a


more physical and realistic style.


Yeats? distinctive quality amongst other modernist poets who dabbled in free


verse was that Yeats stayed true to traditional form. Yeats was a Symbolist poet, known Powles 2 to create a description of a thing which would form an allusion referring to another


artistic piece of either writing or images. The intent was that this would lead the reader


to consort that Yeats meant the referent to embody something much more ethereal and




There were many transitions and evolutions within Yeats? span of writing poetry these shifts were categorized into three periods. While Yeats's early and ornate poetry


portrayed Irish mythology, his transformed and evolved middle period of poetry was


bursting with more contemporary issues with limber tone and well-developed cadences.


Yeats's third period of poetry rediscovered spiritualism and seemed to be a


reintroduction of his earlier period of mysticism accompanied with the concept of


automatic writing.


Automatic Writing is a ?psychic phenomenon? in which (the) hand and pen


presumably served as unconscious instruments for the spirit world to send information...


From these sessions, Yeats formulated theories about life and history. He believed that


certain patterns existed, the most important being what he called gyres, interpenetrating


cones representing mixtures of opposites of both a personal and historical nature?


("William Butler Yeats"). By analyzing and contrasting ?The Second Coming? and


?Sailing to Byzantium,? one can see how the relationship between the spiritual


dimension and how his poetry changed from inspiration to transcendence.


"Much to the embarrassment of his more rational admirers, W. B. Yeats says that


"spiritual instructors" began talking to him in late 1917. Yeats claims that the experience


changed his life, and most critics agree that his best poetry began to emerge in the Powles 3 years between 1916, when he commemorated the Easter Rising, and 1919, when he


wrote "The Second Coming." The "instructors" who spoke through Yeats's wife later


provided him, he says, with the image of the two interpenetrating cones which the poet


used to explain the development of civilizations in A Vision. Giorgio Mel- chiori points


out that those "gyres," each contradicting the movements of the other, showed Yeats


what he had always wanted to believe: that human history followed the same laws as


his own processes of poetic creation" (Ward 1982 143-163).


?The Second Coming? portrays a post-apocalyptic picture of humanity using vivid


imagery, for instance, Yeats writes ?That twenty centuries of stony sleep / Were vexed to


nightmare by a rocking cradle?. This is a reference to the two thousand year cycle that


Yeats believed was occurring at the time and the reason why there were world wars


which left Europe seeming like a wasteland. The atmosphere is sparse yet ominous,


and the reader knows that there are very evil things to come.


However, the problem with this poem is that even though it paints magnificent


pictures, the meaning is difficult to comprehend. In this sense, Harrison states that the


poem ?condenses into imagery as much of the poet's thought as is possible but which


also creates interpretative problems of which he was fully aware and which he attributed


to the compressed, logical rigor of the ideas? (362). The problem with the text is that it is


too complex to make an interpretation and understanding of the mystical subtext. In


fact, one can see this complexity of communication in the poem itself when Yeats writes


?Hardly are those words out / When a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi / Troubles my Powles 4 sight?. He finds the relationship between his words and mystical visions problematic,


even troubling.


In ?Sailing to Byzantium?, the tension between the text and the mystical


foundations seem to be reconciled, allowing the reader to more easily interpret what


Yeats is trying to convey. According to Parks, with this poem, ?Yeats achieves his


lifelong goal: a fusion of his esthetic with an occult idealism? (333). In this poem, one


can finally witness the pinnacle of Yeats? career, which allowed him to be very popular


while still handling very intimate and controversial subject matter.


The fact that ?Sailing to Byzantium? is rather simple in comparison to his wording


in ?The Second Coming? does not make its meaning any easier to understand.


However, it does make it simpler for readers to understand what he is trying to get


across. In this poem, Yeats discusses the complications with aging and asks the divine


sages to ?Consume my heart away; sick with desire / And fastened to a dying animal?,


so as to be gathered ?Into the artifice of eternity?. As the reader can notice, Yeats has


been able to transmit his spiritual inclinations with poetic flourish, something that he did


not seem to be able to do before, in ?The Second Coming?. Even though the earlier


poem is more powerful, ?Sailing to Byzantium? is clearer, and the writer seems to reach


somewhat of a pinnacle in his life, when he is finally able to put his two passions


together into one. His texts allow him to have his soul taken away into immortality.


In conclusion, Yeats? poetry allowed him to make a spiritual connection through


his poetry, which he achieved through references to what most people would believe to


be the occult. In this sense, ?The Second Coming? is filled with dark imagery, painting a Powles 5 post-apocalyptic scenario and written through the use of a device to communicate with


the spiritual world. This comes into full display in ?Sailing to Byzantium?, in which the


writer finally reaches what he was looking for: spiritual transcendence through poetry


and the occult. It is astonishing to see how a writer can make his life have spiritual


transcendence through writing. Powles 6 Works Cited Jeffares, A. Norman. "A Commentary on the Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats."


Google Books. Macmillian and Co LTD, n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2016. p. 26 "William Butler Yeats." Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2016. Ward, David. "Yeats's Conflicts With His Audience, 1897-1917." ELH 49.1 (1982):


143-63. Web. "W. B. Yeats." Academy of American Poets, n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2016.


Harrison, John R. ?What Rough Beast? Yeats, Nietzsche and Historical Rhetoric in ?The


Second Coming?.? Papers on Language and Literature, vol. 31, no. 4, 1995, pp.


362-388. Print.


Parks, L. C. ?The Hidden Aspect of 'Sailing to Byzantium.?? Etudes Anglaises, vol. 16,


no. 4, 1963, pp. 333-345. Print.


Solution details:

This question was answered on: Jan 30, 2021

PRICE: $15 (25.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $15

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free solution (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .

About this Question






Jan 30, 2021





We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.

You can also use these solutions:

  • As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
  • As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
  • For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student.


Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround

Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.


Order Now