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(solution) Lin200 Problem set 4. 1 Phonetic environment and syllables:


Lin200 Problem set 4.

1 Phonetic environment and syllables: Korean
Examine the distribution of the alveolar consonats [l] and [R] in the following data from Korean. Note
that ?:? indicates that a vowel is held longer than usual.
NOTE: The order of the questions is intentional, and helps you solve this problem. Do not ?ip the
questions.
Data 1 [pal] ?foot? [aRæ] ?below? [noRaj] ?song?
[saRam] ?person? [Ratio] ?radio? [Rupi] ?ruby?
[mul] ?water? [tal] ?moon? [mal] ?horse?
[muRe] ?at the water? [kul] ?orange? [maRe] ?at the horse?
[paRi] ?of the foot? [ke:Ri] ?distance? [iRuRe] ?reaches?
1. List the phonetic environments (in this case, the immediate neighboring sounds) of [l] and [R] in
Korean, according to Data 1.
2. According to the phonetic environments in Question 1, are [l] and [R] allophones of di?erent
phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme in Korean? If [l] and [R] are allophones of di?erent
phonemes, give the evidence. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, write a rule in formal
notation for their distribution.
1
Now examine some new data from Korean. Treat each of them as a single word.
Data 2 [mulkama] ?place for horse? [talda] ?sweet? [solhwa] ?legend?
[ibalsa] ?barber? [a:lm] ?knowledge? [kalbi] ?ribs?
3. Does the new data present a problem for your rule in Question 3? In one or two sentences,
explain the problem.
4. To account for this data, you will need to make reference to syllable structure. First, syllabify
the following Korean words. For simplicity, assume that the sonority pro?le and the Maximal
Onset Principle apply in Korean as they do in English.
[ n o R a j ] [ m a R e ] [ t a l d a ] [ s o l h w a ]
5. Making reference to concepts with regards to syllable structure, re-write your rule in words
(i.e. not in formal notation) that correctly captures the distribution of [l] and [R] in both the ?rst
and second sets of data.
2
2 Thinking about underlying representations
2.1 Malay
Examine the following data from a language spoken in Malaysia. Note the distribution of the three
sounds [k], [t], and [P]. Treat [s@lamat dataN] as being two separate words.
[kapaP] ?axel? [g@laP] ?laugh? [pantas] ?agile?
[buka] ?open? [takpi] ?but? [karaN] ?reef?
[tapaP] ?palm (hand)? [laut] ?sea? [k@ran] ?rough?
[t@goh] ??rm? [pit@r] ?disk? [lawlat] ?to visit?
[s@lamat dataN] ?welcome (greeting)? [k@taP] ?fold?
1. List the phonetic environments of [k], [t], and [P].
2. Consider all possible pairs of the above sounds (i.e., [k] - [t], [k] - [P], and [t] - [P]).
(a) What sounds are in overlapping distribution? Support your answer with minimal pairs or
minimal environments.
(b) What sounds are in complementary distribution? Write a rule in formal notation to
describe the distribution of the two sounds.
3
3. Below are four words in Malay represented phonetically (i.e., how they are actually pronounced).
Based on your ?ndings in Question 2, think about the distribution of [k], [t], and [P] and
give the underlying representation (morphemes, NOT phonemes) of these allomorphs.
a. [beP] b. [dimasaki]
c. [Et@tan ] d. [masaP]
2.2 Polish
Consider the following data from Polish and then answer the following questions.
NOTE: The order of the questions is intentional, and helps you solve this problem.
Data 1
[wuk] ?lye? [wug1] ?lyes?
[sok] ?juice? [sok1] ?juices?
[wuk] ?bow? [wuk1] ?bows?
[ruk] ?horn? [rug1] ?horns?
[kot] ?cat? [grus] ?rubble?
1. Based on the above data, can Polish have two separate phonemes /k/ and /g/? Give minimal
pairs or environments to support your answer.
4
Carefully examine Data 2 and then answer the following questions.
Data 2
Singular form (= root) Plural form (= root + plural morpheme)
[wuk] ?lye? [wug1] ?lyes?
[sok] ?juice? [sok1] ?juices?
[wuk] ?bow? [wuk1] ?bows?
[ruk] ?horn? [rug1] ?horns?
2. Paying attention to any variant pronunciations, list all the allomorphs (NOT the allophones) for
the roots that have the following meaning.
?lye?:
?juice?:
?bow?:
?horn?:
3. For the above roots that have more than one allomorph, list the phonetic environment of each
allomorph (NOT the allophone).
4. List the possible underlying representations for each pair of allomorphs (NOT the allophones)
from Question 3.
5. In words (i.e. not in formal notation), hypothesize what rule is responsible for the alternation
between the pairs of allomorphs, making reference to the underlying form of the allomorphs
as well.
5
6. Now examine Data 2 again. Does your rule in Question 5 predict the right singular and plural
forms for all of the words in Data 2? If yes, brie?y explain how. If not, brie?y explain why not
and write a modi?ed rule in words (i.e. not in formal notation) to account for all of the data.
7. Based on your ?ndings on Data 2, can [k] and [g] be allophones of the same phoneme in Polish?
If so, write a phonological rule in formal notation that shows when this would be possible. If not,
write ?no phonological rule possible.?
8. Finally, considering all the data you now have at your disposal and your answers to questions
1 through 7, how many di?erent phonemes is [k] an allophone of in Polish? List all possible
phonemes that [k] belongs to.
3 Generalized rules: Indonesian
Indonesian is a language spoken on the islands of Indonesia. Indonesian has a separate morpheme
?agentive? as a pre?x to the verb. ?Agentive? means the verb has an agent, i.e. active doer. Look at the
distribution of the agentive pre?x in the data and answer the following questions.
[ñ] is a voiced palatal nasal, note that it is di?erent from the velar nasal [N].
[é] is a voiced palatal stop.
6
Root (=bare verbs) Meaning Agentive verb (=Agentive + root) Meaning
[b@li] ?buy? [m@mb@li] ?active buying?
[d@Nar] ?hear? [m@nd@Nar] ?active hearing?
[éahit] ?sew? [m@ñéahit] ?active sewing?
[goreN] ?buy? [m@NgoreN] ?active frying?
[ambil] ?take? [m@Nambil] ?active taking?
[isi] ??ll up? [m@Nisi] ?active ?lling up?
[undAN] ?invite? [m@NundAN] ?active inviting?
1. List all the allomorphs for the agentive morpheme.
2. For each allomorph (NOT allophone) of the agentive morpheme you found above, list its pho
netic environments.
3. Write a rule in formal notation predicting the distribution of each of these allomorphs (NOT
allophones).
4. In a sentence or two (i.e. not formal notation), describe a more general rule (taking into account
place of articulation) about what determines the forms of the agentive allomorphs in Indonesian
when they attach to a root.


Problem Set 4: Challenging phonology problems LIN200 FS16 Names: 1 Phonetic environment and syllables: Korean Examine the distribution of the alveolar consonats [l] and [R] in the following data from Korean. Note

 

that ?:? indicates that a vowel is held longer than usual.

 

NOTE: The order of the questions is intentional, and helps you solve this problem. Do not flip the

 

questions.

 

Data 1

 

[pal] ?foot? [aRæ] ?below? [noRaj] ?song? [saRam] ?person? [Ratio] ?radio? [Rupi] ?ruby? [mul] ?water? [tal] ?moon? [mal] ?horse? [muRe] ?at the water? [kul] ?orange? [maRe] ?at the horse? [paRi] ?of the foot? [ke:Ri] ?distance? [iRuRe] ?reaches? 1. List the phonetic environments (in this case, the immediate neighboring sounds) of [l] and [R] in

 

Korean, according to Data 1. 2. According to the phonetic environments in Question 1, are [l] and [R] allophones of different

 

phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme in Korean? If [l] and [R] are allophones of different

 

phonemes, give the evidence. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, write a rule in formal

 

notation for their distribution. 1 Now examine some new data from Korean. Treat each of them as a single word.

 

Data 2

 

[mulkama]

 

[ibalsa] ?place for horse? [talda] ?sweet? [solhwa] ?legend? ?barber? [a:lm] ?knowledge? [kalbi] ?ribs? 3. Does the new data present a problem for your rule in Question 3? In one or two sentences,

 

explain the problem. 4. To account for this data, you will need to make reference to syllable structure. First, syllabify

 

the following Korean words. For simplicity, assume that the sonority profile and the Maximal

 

Onset Principle apply in Korean as they do in English. [n o R a j] [m a R e] [t a l d a] [s o l h w a] 5. Making reference to concepts with regards to syllable structure, re-write your rule in words

 

(i.e. not in formal notation) that correctly captures the distribution of [l] and [R] in both the first

 

and second sets of data. 2 2 Thinking about underlying representations 2.1 Malay Examine the following data from a language spoken in Malaysia. Note the distribution of the three

 

sounds [k], [t], and [P]. Treat [s@lamat dataN] as being two separate words.

 

[kapaP] ?axel? [g@laP] ?laugh? [pantas] ?agile? [buka] ?open? [takpi] ?but? [karaN] ?reef? [tapaP] ?palm (hand)? [laut] ?sea? [k@ran] ?rough? [t@goh] ?firm? [pit@r] ?disk? [lawlat] ?to visit? [s@lamat dataN] ?welcome (greeting)? [k@taP] ?fold? 1. List the phonetic environments of [k], [t], and [P]. 2. Consider all possible pairs of the above sounds (i.e., [k] - [t], [k] - [P], and [t] - [P]).

 

(a) What sounds are in overlapping distribution? Support your answer with minimal pairs or

 

minimal environments. (b) What sounds are in complementary distribution? Write a rule in formal notation to

 

describe the distribution of the two sounds. 3 3. Below are four words in Malay represented phonetically (i.e., how they are actually pronounced).

 

Based on your findings in Question 2, think about the distribution of [k], [t], and [P] and

 

give the underlying representation (morphemes, NOT phonemes) of these allomorphs. 2.2 a. [beP] b. [dimasaki] c. [Et@tan ] d. [masaP] Polish Consider the following data from Polish and then answer the following questions.

 

NOTE: The order of the questions is intentional, and helps you solve this problem.

 

Data 1

 

[wuk] ?lye? [wug1] ?lyes? [sok] ?juice? [sok1] ?juices? [wuk] ?bow? [wuk1] ?bows? [ruk] ?horn? [rug1] ?horns? [kot] ?cat? [grus] ?rubble? 1. Based on the above data, can Polish have two separate phonemes /k/ and /g/? Give minimal

 

pairs or environments to support your answer. 4 Carefully examine Data 2 and then answer the following questions.

 

Data 2

 

Singular form (= root) Plural form (= root + plural morpheme)

 

[wuk] ?lye? [wug1] ?lyes? [sok] ?juice? [sok1] ?juices? [wuk] ?bow? [wuk1] ?bows? [ruk] ?horn? [rug1] ?horns? 2. Paying attention to any variant pronunciations, list all the allomorphs (NOT the allophones) for

 

the roots that have the following meaning.

 

?lye?: ?bow?: ?juice?: ?horn?: 3. For the above roots that have more than one allomorph, list the phonetic environment of each

 

allomorph (NOT the allophone). 4. List the possible underlying representations for each pair of allomorphs (NOT the allophones)

 

from Question 3. 5. In words (i.e. not in formal notation), hypothesize what rule is responsible for the alternation

 

between the pairs of allomorphs, making reference to the underlying form of the allomorphs

 

as well. 5 6. Now examine Data 2 again. Does your rule in Question 5 predict the right singular and plural

 

forms for all of the words in Data 2? If yes, briefly explain how. If not, briefly explain why not

 

and write a modified rule in words (i.e. not in formal notation) to account for all of the data. 7. Based on your findings on Data 2, can [k] and [g] be allophones of the same phoneme in Polish?

 

If so, write a phonological rule in formal notation that shows when this would be possible. If not,

 

write ?no phonological rule possible.? 8. Finally, considering all the data you now have at your disposal and your answers to questions

 

1 through 7, how many different phonemes is [k] an allophone of in Polish? List all possible

 

phonemes that [k] belongs to. 3 Generalized rules: Indonesian Indonesian is a language spoken on the islands of Indonesia. Indonesian has a separate morpheme

 

?agentive? as a prefix to the verb. ?Agentive? means the verb has an agent, i.e. active doer. Look at the

 

distribution of the agentive prefix in the data and answer the following questions.

 

[ñ] is a voiced palatal nasal, note that it is different from the velar nasal [N].

 

[é] is a voiced palatal stop. 6 Root (=bare verbs) Meaning Agentive verb (=Agentive + root) Meaning [b@li] ?buy? [m@mb@li] ?active buying? [d@Nar] ?hear? [m@nd@Nar] ?active hearing? [éahit] ?sew? [m@ñéahit] ?active sewing? [goreN] ?buy? [m@NgoreN] ?active frying? [ambil] ?take? [m@Nambil] ?active taking? [isi] ?fill up? [m@Nisi] ?active filling up? [undAN] ?invite? [m@NundAN] ?active inviting? 1. List all the allomorphs for the agentive morpheme. 2. For each allomorph (NOT allophone) of the agentive morpheme you found above, list its phonetic environments. 3. Write a rule in formal notation predicting the distribution of each of these allomorphs (NOT

 

allophones). 4. In a sentence or two (i.e. not formal notation), describe a more general rule (taking into account

 

place of articulation) about what determines the forms of the agentive allomorphs in Indonesian

 

when they attach to a root. 7

 


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