I need each of these answered before 5:30 please!!!
Vertebrate Structure and Function
Concept Questions 1) What is the function of the rat mammary glands?
2) What is the function of the vibrissae (whisker)?
3) What is the function of the claws? 4) Based on your knowledge of the function of the small intestine and the large intestine, of
what advantage is it for the small intestine to be so much longer than the large intestine?
5) If a rat is afflicted with diabetes, what organ is most likely malfunctioning? What is
diabetes? 6) How do the folds on the interior surface of the stomach make the stomach better adapted
to carry out one of its functions?
7) Why do you think the masseter (cheek) muscles are so well developed in the rat? Hint:
What is the function of these muscles? 8) The enzyme in saliva which is involved in the initial digestion of starch has an optimum
pH of about 6.5. Explain why the salivary enzyme does not continue to digest the starch once
it reaches the stomach? (Hint: What is the pH of the ?digestive juice? of the stomach?)
9) Arrange the following sequence of events in the order in which they would occur in the
male rat's reproductive system. Place a number from 1 to 5 next to each event; with 1 taking
place first and 5 last.
? storage of non motile sperm in the epididymis
? seminal fluid produced by the accessory glands is added to the sperm
? sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
? sperm move through the vasa deferentia from the epididymis
? semen moves through the urethra of the penis to the outside
10)Active sperm cells can store very little food themselves. Therefore, what is the major
source of nutrients for sperm cells once they have left the testes? 11)Explain the statement: Inguinal hernia is generally only a human problem, related to the
bipedal (two legged) posture. Why don't rats develop inguinal hernias?
12)Arrange the following sequence of events in the order in which they would occur in the
female rat's reproductive system. Place a number from 1 to 9 next to each event; with 1
taking place first and 9 last.
? Maternal and fetal portions of the placenta are formed.
? Immature egg cell (secondary oocyte) bursts out of the ovarian follicle.
? Cleavage of the zygote begins as it passes down the oviduct.
? Secondary oocyte is moved down the oviduct by the action of cilia on the surface cells of
? Immature egg cell (secondary oocyte) is produced by meiosis in the ovary.
? Developing embryo implants in the lining of the uterus.
? Fertilization occurs in the upper third of the oviduct.
1 ? Finger like projections (fimbriae) of the oviduct surround the ovary and sweep the
secondary oocyte into the oviduct.
? Developing embryo enters the uterus. 13)What does the number of fetuses in the uterine horns indicate about the number of eggs
ovulated each time the female pig (or rat) is receptive? Explain your answer. 14)Why do most human pregnancies not result in multiple births? (Hint: How many eggs are
generally ovulated each month?) 15)The chorioamniotic sac is filled with what substance? What is the primary function of this
16)Why does damage to the heart muscle often occur if the coronary arteries become
17)Why is the muscle of the left ventricle thicker than that of the right ventricle?
18)Why are the atria less muscular than the ventricles? 19)Based on your knowledge of the structure of human blood cells (humans are mammals),
would you expect the mature rat red blood cells to have a nucleus? White blood cells? 20)In which organism, the rat or human, does the cerebrum occupy more of the total brain
volume? Relate the size difference to the overall importance of the cerebrum to each of these
21)In which organism, the rat or human, are the olfactory bulbs more prominent? 22)What does this size difference suggest about the relative importance of the sense of smell
in rats compared to humans?
23)Explain why a blow to the base of the skull is so dangerous. (Hint: What part of the brain
is located in this region?) 24)Based upon the types of teeth present in the rat skull, what is the probable diet of the rat
in its natural habitat? Explain why you chose your answer. (Hint: The presence of a large,
functional caecum in the rat digestive tract is another clue to the rat's diet). 2
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