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(solution) Roger Bougie 2011 CASE: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF INVOLVEMENT


I need help with questions 4a and 4b. The case study is attached. 


© Roger Bougie 2011

 


 

CASE: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF INVOLVEMENT IN PRODUCT PLACEMENT

 

EFFECTIVENESS

 

Xavier Gonzalez Garcia is a Business Administration student at a big, reputable university in

 

England. Xavier loves to play soccer and tennis, he very much enjoys listening to music (he is a

 

big fan of Muse), and he is fond of watching movies. He is a student with excellent research

 

skills as evidenced by his academic record and the quality of his bachelor thesis.

 

The topic of Xavier?s bachelor thesis was ?product placement?. Product placement has been

 

defined as the marketing practice in which a firm pays to have its branded product included

 

in entertainment media, such as video games, movies, and television programs.

 


 

This

 


 

relatively new form of marketing took off in 1982 with the movie E.T., in which the alien is

 

offered a piece of Reese?s Pieces. Since then the number of product placements has increased

 

rapidly.

 

After having spent the summer in his home country ? Spain ? Xavier has just started with his

 

first year as a master student. During his holiday he has read more research papers on

 

product placement which have further fueled his interest in this topic. Based on these papers

 

and several discussions with his former bachelor thesis supervisor, dr. Casey Finneran,

 

Xavier has decided to take on further empirical research into this issue. He has already

 

discussed a research proposal and the theoretical background of his study with dr. Finneran,

 

who has agreed to help him with this study. Now, he is ready to discuss the design of his

 

study. Xavier has handed in the following outline for an experiment.

 


 

Introduction

 

Many researchers in the marketing field have examined the effect of product

 

placements on memory, attitudes, and behavior. These studies have shown that product

 

placements affect brand recall, brand recognition, and consumers? attitudes toward the

 

brand. The current study aims to investigate the moderating role of product involvement on

 

the effects of visual and auditory product placements on brand preferences. The results

 

of

 


 

this

 


 

study

 


 

build

 


 

on

 


 

prevailing

 


 

knowledge

 


 

in marketing and help marketing

 


 

practitioners who want to place their product in a movie, television program, or video game

 

to decide whether they should do this visually or auditory.

 


 

© Roger Bougie 2011

 


 

Research question

 

How does involvement influence the effect of auditory and visual product placement

 

on brand choice?

 


 

Hypotheses

 

Hypothesis 1: Auditory product placements are more effective for high involvement

 

products than for low involvement products.

 

Hypothesis 2: Visual product placements are more effective for low involvement products

 

than for high involvement products.

 


 

Method

 

Participants: The sample will consist of 80 to 100 university students. These students are

 

divided into four groups, with 20-25 students per group. The participants are randomly

 

assigned to one of the experimental conditions.

 

Design: The study has a 2 (visual versus auditory product placement) x 2 (high versus low

 

product

 

involvement) experimental design. Participants are told a cover story; they are told that the

 

goal of this study is to evaluate whether brand choice depends on the mood people

 

are in. They are informed that mood is manipulated by a video clip, which will be either

 

funny or sad.

 

Manipulations and manipulation check: Four short movies have been selected for the

 

experiment, with four types of product placements. Each participant will only see one of

 

these movies. One of the following movies will be shown to the participants of the study: (1)

 

visual product placement of a low involvement product (a candy bar); (2) visual product

 

placement of a high involvement product (sneakers); (3) auditory product placement of a low

 

involvement product (a candy bar); and (4) an auditory product placement of a high

 

involvement product (sneakers). The short movies will all come from episodes of the

 

television show Seinfeld. To ensure that the involvement manipulations (candy bars versus

 

sneakers) elicit the intended amount of involvement, this manipulation was carefully pretested with a separate sample of 77 respondents. What?s more, a manipulation check of

 

involvement is also included in the study. Involvement is measured with a 7-point, multiitem scale adapted from Zaichkowski (1985). The scale is introduced with the following

 

question: ?How involved are you with this brand?.?

 

Control variable: Because the product placements in the four video clips differ in terms of

 

prominence, we will control for brand prominence. Prominent placements are those in which

 

the product is made highly visible by virtue of size or position on the screen or its

 


 

© Roger Bougie 2011

 


 

centrality to the action in the scene. Subtle placements are those in which the brand is not

 

shown prominently, for instance, small in size, a background prop outside the main field of

 

visual focus, lost in an array of multiple products or objects, or low time of exposure

 

(Gupta and Lord, 1998). Following Gupta and Lord, brand prominence is measured with

 

a 7-point, multi-item scale.

 

Dependent variable: Brand preference is measured by providing the respondents with a

 

shopping list. The shopping list mentions twelve product categories (including those

 

under study) and the participants are asked to pick one of the brands from each product

 

category. They are instructed to act like they will need an item from each product category in

 

the near future.

 


 

Discussion Questions

 

Xavier has developed a lab experiment to test the hypotheses of his study. In lab

 

experiments, control and manipulation

 


 

are introduced to establish cause-and-effect

 


 

relationships between variables in an artificial setting.

 


 

1a.

 

1b.

 


 

Describe how Xavier manipulates the independent variable and the moderating

 

variable in this study.

 

Although Xavier has pretested the manipulation of product involvement, he has also

 

included a manipulation check for involvement in his study. Why would he have done

 

that?

 

You have just read an article (Hetherington and MacDiarmid, 1993) that shows

 

that 92% of the chocolate addicts are female. Hence, you suspect that gender is a

 

nuisance factor in this study (recall that candy bars feature in the low involvement

 

movies).

 


 

2a.

 

2b.

 

3a.

 

3b.

 


 

4a.

 

4b.

 


 

Explain, based on the afore-mentioned research finding, why and how ?gender?

 

may affect the results of the study if Xavier would not control for gender?

 

Explain (in detail) possible ways in which Xavier can control for gender in this study.

 

Which factors affect the internal validity of Xavier?s study given the experimental

 

design he is using? Explain.

 

Are the findings of this study generalizable to other settings (for instance other

 

products), people (consumers in general), and events (product placements in movies

 

or video games)? In other words, how do you feel about the external validity of this

 

study?

 

Xavier has indicated that he wants to give the participants a cover story. What could

 

be the purpose of this cover story?

 

Do you think that telling a cover story is ethical? Why not)?

 


 

Reference:

 


 

© Roger Bougie 2011

 


 

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2013). Research methods for business: A skill building approach

 

(6th ed.). Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley. ISBN: 978-1-119-94225-2.

 


 

 


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