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(solution) NO VIDEO WRITE A # PAGE ESSAY ON WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE IN THE


NO VIDEO WRITE A # PAGE ESSAY ON WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE IN THE VIDEO ITSELF

PLEASE SEE ATTACH NOTES TO HELP WITH RESPONDS

Vincent bess

USC

LINEBACKER_FOOTBALL

Create a video demonstrating your understanding of sports conditioning training. The video portion of your final exam should be completed within the following guidelines:

  • Introduce yourself by name, school, or association that you work for, etc.
  • Identify the athlete and sport you are coaching and the athlete's position in the training cycle.
  • Introduce the layout of the training program and then begin training. (NOTE: Training should be specific for the athlete?s needs.)
  • Walk through training techniques with both verbal explanation and physical demonstration.
  • Include both a warm-up and cool-down routine with both verbal explanation and physical demonstration.


If you cannot do a video you can write a 1,500 word (3 page) essay on what would have been done in the video itself.
197

 

Designing an exercise program requires a basic knowledge of the

 

effects of exercise on the body. The basic principles of training are

 

similar for beginning exercisers and those more experienced. Both

 

subject themselves to an exercise stress and their bodies respond

 

by increasing physical fitness. For example, the beginner?s program

 

might include a brisk walk or bike ride, while a serious athlete might

 

bench press 300 lb or run 60-seconds for 400-meters. Stress and

 

adaptation are the same in anyone who exercises, whether they are

 

a world-class athlete or college student trying to improve their

 

physiologic condition. Fitness improves by giving the body an

 

unaccustomed exercise stress such as walking instead of sitting,

 

lifting a heavier weight, running faster or farther, or stretching a

 

muscle more than usual. The body adapts to the stress by improving

 

its function. In the late 1940?s, Dr. Hans Selye (1907-1982), an AustrianHungarian endocri-nologist, formulated the theory of stress

 

adaptation that has profoundly affected medicine, and has

 

tremendous implications in conditioning for physical activity and

 

sports. Selye called the process of stress adaptation the ?General

 

Adaptation Syndrome? (GAS). He described three processes

 

involved in response to a stressor (a stressor can be exercise, cold,

 

or bacteria that upsets the body?s balance): General adaptation syndrome: Theory developed by Dr. Hans

 

Selye describing the way the body reacts and adapts (or fails to

 

adapt) to physical and emotional stresses.

 

1. Alarm reaction

 

2. Resistance development

 

3. Exhaustion

 

The alarm reaction is the initial response to the stressor. This

 

process involves the mobilization of the organism. During exercise,

 

for example, the body reacts to the stress by breathing harder,

 

sweating, and increasing the heart rate. The alarm reaction disturbs

 

the normal physiologic response patterns or the body?s ?internal?

 

system of checks and balances.

 

Alarm reaction: Initial response to a stressor; responsible for

 

mobilizing an organism.

 

The resistance development stage is an attempt to adjust to the

 

effects of the stressor. The body improves its function so the

 

stressor becomes less disruptive to the harmony of the body?s

 

normal physiological functioning. For example, when lifting weights,

 

muscles get larger (hypertrophy) so that the load becomes less

 

stressful. Resistance development is the goal of physical

 

conditioning. The body only adapt if the stress load disrupts the

 

body?s balance. During exercise, if the stress is below a critical

 

intensity, then fitness will not improve. Inability to tolerate the

 

training load makes one more prone to injury.

 

Resistance development stage: Second stage of the general

 

adaptation syndrome (GAS) during which the body actively attempts

 

to adjust to the effects of a stressor.

 

The amount and intensity of exercise necessary to improve fitness

 

depends on fitness, age, health, mental outlook, and a number of

 

unknown factors. For example, running a ten-minute mile may be

 

exhausting to a sedentary overweight 40-year old, but would cause essentially no adaptive response in a

 

world-class distance runner. Likewise, a training run tolerated easily

 

one day may be completely inappropriate on a day following a

 

prolonged illness, or an 8-hour entrance examination for one of the

 

allied-health professions. Environment also can alter performance.

 

Extreme heat or cold, high altitude, or polluted air will decrease

 

fitness.

 

If the stress is too great, then the person enters the third stage of

 

GAS called the stage of exhaustion. This stage is an excessive

 

stress that causes injury. The stress can be acute (applied all at

 

once) or chronic (occurring over a period of time). Examples of acute

 

exhaustion include fractures, sprains, and strains. Chronic

 

exhaustion is more subtle and includes over-training, stress

 

fractures, and emotional stress.

 

Stage of exhaustion: Third stage of the general adaptation

 

syndrome (GAS) in which the organism can no longer resist stress. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING

 

Five important factors influence how the body adapts to the stress of

 

exercise. These include (1) the degree of overload (how hard to push

 

yourself), (2) specificity of training (training to make the body to

 

adapt), (3) individual differences (genetics), (4) progression

 

(taking it one step at time), and (5) reversibility (use it or lose it).

 

Specificity of training: Body reacts uniquely to the nature of a

 

stressor.

 

Individual differences: People respond differently to the same

 

stressor.

 

Progression: People adapt best to training when there increasing

 

levels of difficulty in a training program.

 

Reversibility: Fitness gains will disappear if the stress of exercise is

 

removed.

 

THE OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE The basis of the General Adaptation Syndrome is that stressing the

 

body to a tolerable limit promotes adaptation and improves

 

function. This positive stressor is an overload, quantified according

 

to load, repetition, rest, and frequency. Load refers to the

 

intensity of the exercise. Repetition refers to the number of times a

 

load is administered. Rest refers to the time interval between

 

repetitions, and frequency is the number of training sessions per

 

week. For example, in weight training, one might do 3 sets of 8

 

different exercises with a weight you can barley lift for 10 repetitions

 

(load and repetition), with 1-minute between each set (rest). This

 

might be done workout 3 times a week (frequency). The nature of

 

overload in an exercise program is not an exact science. Start

 

conservatively and build up. The overload is excessive if an injury

 

occurs, if recovery is poor, or if the athlete becomes exceedingly

 

sore. The personal trainer must be part scientist and part artist

 

when designing a program that promotes fitness but prevents injury

 

and soreness.

 

Load: Resistance or weight used during the exercise.

 

Repetition: Number of times you repeat the exercise.

 

Rest: Amount of time you spend not exercising between sets or

 

workouts.

 

Frequency: Number of times you train in a given period.

 

SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING

 

The body adapts specifically to the stress of exercise. For example,

 

the adaptation to distance running or swimming differs from that of

 

strength exercise such as weight lifting, and from power exercises

 

such as sprinting. Any training program should reflect the desired

 

adaptation. Train in a way so the body adapts to that method of

 

training.

 

Doing the wrong type of training can impair certain types of fitness.

 

For example, training for strength and endurance at the same time

 

interferes with strength development. This is not a problem for a

 

person who exercises for improved health and appearance. It is, however, an important consideration for the person who wants to

 

develop maximum strength and power. Sports skills are highly specific. Scientists discovered that movement skills become ingrained in the

 

nervous system and are ?played back? by reflex (see section 4.2). The aim of practice and coaching is to

 

ingrain the correct motion; practicing incorrect motions develops the wrong patterns in the nervous

 

system and produces incorrect movement patterns. The more a person practices a movement (up to a

 

certain point on a learning curve), the more it reinforces the skill in the nervous system. It is imperative,

 

therefore, that athletes practice only correct movements (i.e., good technique). As discussed in Section

 

4.2 of the course, providing videotape feedback to show athletes their weaknesses and help them

 

improve their technique is one of the most effective ways to improve performance on the playing field. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Anyone watching the Olympics, professional football game, or tennis match can readily see that from a

 

physical standpoint, not all individuals are created equal. There are large individual differences in ability

 

to perform and learn sports skills and respond to training . Genetic factors limit capacity to develop

 

fitness and skill. Anyone can improve if they stay on a systematic program. Genetics also apply to health and wellness. Some people are genetically ?healthier? than others. Their

 

immune systems naturally fight disease better than other people, and are less susceptible to coronary

 

heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. An individual may be fortunate enough to have a family history of

 

longevity and freedom from many diseases, but lifestyle is far more important in determining health and

 

well-being. Finding athletic talent in children is difficult but not impossible. Research shows that the top 1% of

 

athletes during school years tend to be the top athletes in college and beyond. The majority of athletes

 

who make it as college or professional athletes are difficult to predict based on childhood performance. Exceptional athletes such as Michael Jordan and Babe Ruth were not standouts as young children. Jordan

 

was cut from the sophomore basketball team. Finding genetically gifted athletes who are in high school

 

or college is less difficult. The closer athletes get to full maturation, the easier it is to find superior

 

performers. Many of the fitness tests in Section 4.1 are excellent for determining different types of

 

athletic talent. In general, if an athlete wants to compete at a specific level (high school or college team,

 

professional team, Olympic team), he or she should have the comparable fitness of those athletes. PROGRESSION Adaptation to the stress of training occurs most readily when the exercise stress is applied gradually.

 

High levels of fitness require many years of training and involve progression in small stages. Superior

 

fitness and physical performance represent a combination of many small gains. No person can become

 

fit overnight?only gradually, one step at a time. REVERSIBILITY This principle basically states, ?Use it, or lose it.? It is the reverse of the overload principle. The body

 

adapts to the stresses placed upon it. More intense training improves fitness; fitness declines if one does

 

less. A graphic example of reversibility occurs when one wears a cast for a broken bone. When the

 

doctor removes the cast, the arm or leg is smaller than before. This occurs because the muscles atrophy

 

(get smaller) from relatively prolonged physical inactivity. In addition to these four major principles, four additional training principles are noteworthy. VARIATION: The body adapts quickly to an exercise stress such as walking, cycling, or swimming. Gains in

 

fitness in a particular activity become more difficult with time. Varying the kinds of exercises in the

 

person?s program allows them to adapt to many types of exercise and creates physical fitness in a variety

 

of activities. RECUPERATION: Rest is just as important as exercise for improving fitness. Fitness reflects an adaptation

 

to the stress of exercise. Building fitness involves

 

a series of exercise stresses, recuperation, and adaptation leading to improved fitness followed by

 

further stresses. Build rest into the training program rather than as an excuse not to exercise. Fuel the Activity Good nutrition, including rehydration and resyn-thesis of liver and muscle carbohydrate stores, is part of

 

optimal recuperation from exercise. Eat enough calories to support the exercise program without gaining

 

body fat. Many studies show that consuming carbohydrates and protein before or after exercise

 

promotes restoration of stored fuels to enable the person to continue to exercise intensely after only a

 

brief rest period. Have Fun Choose exercises and sports the person enjoys. Some people like to play competitive tennis, golf, or

 

volleyball. Others like the more solitary activities such as jogging, walking, or swimming. Still others like

 

high skill individual sports such as skiing, surfing, or skateboarding. Many activities people get fit, so

 

choose the ones they enjoy. Exercise and sports help build a social support network when done with

 

friends, spouse, or relatives. DEVELOP YOUR BODY TO SUIT YOUR LIFESTYLE The human body is extremely adaptable. Determine what the athlete wants from an exercise program

 

and then mold his or her body in that direction. If the goal is health promotion, and the person does not

 

want to begin a formal exercise program, include more activity?walking, gardening, and waxing the car

 

?in daily life. If they have more lofty fitness goals, determine the elements that will help achieve them. Many people want to improve performance in recreational sports. If the sports require more endurance,

 

concentrate on the oxidative energy system and endurance exercise. If they want to be a better tennis or

 

volleyball player, they must not only develop skill, but must improve muscle power and general

 

endurance. If they mainly are interested in improving appearance, they must develop a healthy diet and

 

exercise strategy that helps to reduce body fat and maintain or gain lean body mass. Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable. If it is over-loaded?loaded more than usual?it becomes stronger.

 

Likewise, if it becomes deconditioned by habitually contracting less forcefully than normal, it becomes

 

weaker. Strength gains occur by increasing muscle size, improving nervous system transmission to

 

muscles, and coordinating muscle elasticity with muscle contraction. Athletes derive the most from their program if they follow the seventeen principles of training. These

 

principles serve as a guide to gradual, long-lasting, injury-free fitness development, and lead to improved

 

performance with minimal risk of injury. They also serve as a guide to gradual and long-lasting fitness

 

development. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING

 

1.Train the way the person wants their body to change.

 

2.Eat a well-balanced, high performance diet.

 

3.Establish realistic goals. 4.Have a workout plan.

 

5.Train year round.

 

6.Get in shape gradually.

 

7.Do not train when ill or seriously injured.

 

8.Train first for volume (repetitions) and only later for intensity (weight/resistance).

 

9.Listen to the body.

 

10.Vary the volume and intensity of workouts.

 

11.Work on weaknesses

 

12.Train systematically.

 

13.Warm-up and cool-down

 

14.Train the mind to focus.

 

15.Listen to ?Coach Pain.?

 

16.Learn all that is possible about exercise. 17.Have fun! Keep proper perspective. 201 A Closer Look at the Principles of Training

 

1. TRAIN THE WAY THE PERSON WANTS THEIR BODY TO

 

CHANGE

 

This means stress the body so it changes in the desired way. If the

 

person is primarily concerned with general fitness, choose a wellrounded program that concentrates on the major muscle groups.

 

The program should include endurance and flexibility exercises

 

besides the weight training routine.

 

This is the most important training principle. The body adapts to

 

stress in a highly specific way. For example, swimming will not

 

improve endurance for running or cycling. Likewise, if one lifts

 

weights, they will not become a better football player, discus

 

thrower, skier, or swimmer unless they practice the sport. The best

 

way to improve performance in a sport is to practice that particular

 

sport. Performance eventually improves with support exercises for weight

 

training, power exercises, and endurance training. However,

 

improvement occurs only if one practices the skill correctly and

 

incorporates new fitness gains (i.e., strength, power, flexibility,

 

endurance) into it.

 

The principle of specificity should be the central consideration in

 

any training program designed to improve skilled performance. Skill

 

practice in activities such as tennis, skiing, discus throwing, football,

 

and softball should be a central part of the program. Support

 

activities designed to improve physical capabilities?strength,

 

power, and endurance?remain secondary to skill development.

 

Physical support activities (e.g., strength and power training) must

 

be consistent and long-term. Lifting weights for two-months before

 

football or track season is practically worthless. The increased

 

strength will not transfer that rapidly to motor performance. If it

 

does, the effect is minimal at best. In contrast, a support program

 

that develops high levels of fitness over a protracted time can be

 

more effectively integrated into the sport. This will inject greater

 

strength, power, endurance, and flexibility into movement skills so

 

performance improves. Another critically important factor about specificity of training is that

 

weight training, plyometrics, and speed training transfer to motor

 

skills in skilled athletes better than in novices. The personal trainer

 

should work on basic skill development in beginners before

 

emphasizing strength and power. As athletes increase their skills,

 

they can add more conditioning exercise to improve power. Most sports involve movements using many joints in sequence.

 

Muscles may contract concentrically (exerts force as it shortens),

 

eccentrically (exerts force as it lengthens), or statically (stabilizer),

 

often transferring force from one part of the body to another. For

 

example, baseball and tennis players drive with their legs and rotate

 

the hips and spine to increase force exerted by muscles in their upper bodies. Training should include functional exercises that

 

overload the body in motions that more closely resemble

 

movements used in sports. Exercises might include unilateral cable

 

exercises from a standing position, chopping wood (real or

 

simulated), thrusters (squats combined with military press),

 

kettlebell exercises, dumbbell swings, Olympic lifts, sled pulling or

 

pushing, or heavy stone exercises. Summarizing this critical principle of specificity?train the way the

 

person wants the body to adapt. Support activities designed to

 

improve power during sports movements create change but very

 

slowly. The athlete must develop strength, power, endurance, and

 

flexibility slowly and consistently for integration into new fitness and

 

sports skills. The bottom line is that improving fitness without

 

practicing the skill will have little or no effects on sports

 

performance. Athletes should work on their weaknesses, even if the exercises

 

necessary to correct them are unpleasant. For example, if they are a

 

skier, having strong, flexible lower body musculature is more

 

important than having strong arms and shoulders. Analyze the

 

athlete?s program. A well-designed program will be more effective

 

and less time-consuming than a casual or unsystematic one. 2. EAT A WELL-BALANCED, HIGH PERFORMANCE DIET Image During the past 25 years, sports scientists have shown that the right

 

diet can improve performance and reduce excess body fat. All the

 

training in the world will not produce a ?great body? if the person consumes too much food. They should eat a sensible, nutritious diet

 

(one containing a balance of the basic food groups). The diet should

 

supply enough calories to meet energy needs but still allow athletes

 

to control their weight. If they want to lose weight, they should do so

 

gradually?no more than 2.5 pounds per week. If they are training hard, they should eat more

 

carbohydrates and fewer saturated fats and trans fatty acids. The

 

diet should be high in fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains.

 

Foods containing monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, nuts, and

 

avocados should also be included.

 

3. ESTABLISH REALISTIC GOALS

 

As discussed, improved fitness occurs when the body adapts to the

 

stress of vigorous exercise. Based on the specificity of training,

 

attaining goals will reflect the nature of the exercise stress, in this

 

case the training program. Goals should reflect capability and

 

motivation. First-year track and field athletes should not set a goal

 

of being Olympic champions. Rather, they should set achievable short-term goals. If they continue achieving a series of goals, they

 

may eventually reach the dream of the Olympics. Goal setting is

 

discussed in Section 8 of the course dealing with sports psychology.

 

Set achievable short-term goals. A beginning tennis player might set

 

a goal of keeping a rally going for ten strokes. A beginning golfer

 

might set a short-term goal of putting the ball in two strokes on 25%

 

of the holes. A beginning runner might set a goal of completing a 6mile fun-run. A more accomplished athlete may set more difficult

 

goals ranging from running a sub 6-minute mile to making the

 

Olympic team. The principle is the same for everyone?set

 

achievable goals. After they achieve them, reevaluate the program

 

and set new goals. The new goal might be to maintain the present

 

level, or it could be to achieve a higher level of performance.

 

The personal trainer is a critical link for goal setting in athletes and

 

clients. They should help them set goals the person can achieve. Set

 

small training goals such as improving 1-inch in the vertical jump or

 

bench-pressing 10 more pounds. When athletes develop the habit of

 

working for and achieving short-term goals, they soon will be

 

achieving goals they never thought possible. More importantly, they

 

will begin to internalize goal-setting behavior. This is critical for longterm success in sport or in life.

 

4. HAVE A WORK-OUT PLAN

 

Teach athletes to write down their goals and method of achieving

 

them. If you are working with overweight clients, they should not

 

just wish to look good in their bathing suits next summer. They

 

should write down a program for achieving their goals. For example,

 

if a woman wants to lose 20 pounds of body fat and increase muscle

 

mass, set up a realistic program for achieving her goal. A sensible

 

approach might be to lose 1 pound per week and strive to go to the

 

gym 3 times a week. She might achieve her goal by cutting down on

 

desserts and fats and devoting 60 minutes a day to aerobic exercise

 

and weight training.

 

Contrast this method to a more casual approach. It is January and

 

she is tired of looking bad in her swimsuit during the summer. She

 

wants to reduce 20 pounds of fat but has no plan. She exercises and diets from time-to-time but makes no progress because she is

 

inconsistent in her exercise regimen. Soon, May comes around and

 

she looks the same as she did in the wintertime. Feeling self-pity

 

and disappointment, she undertakes a crash weight loss and

 

exercise program. In spite of great pain and suffering, she fails to

 

meet her goal and ends up wearing a baggy T-shirt to the beach.

 

In setting up a good workout plan, analyze the elements necessary

 

for achieving a clients? goal. For example, if he wants to be a better

 

skier, he must practice skiing and develop good endurance,

 

strength, power, and flexibility. During the off-season, he would

 

systematically improve his physical fitness. Once the ski season

 

comes around, shift emphasis to skill development and try to

 

maintain fitness.

 

The football player should follow a similar procedure. After the

 

football season, begin a program designed to gain muscle mass and

 

improve power output capacity. Establish a resistance training

 

program to stress the body?s major muscles. Perform flexibility and

 

endurance exercises to improve overall fitness. In the spring,

 

integrate more power training into the program with plyometrics

 

and speed exercises. During the summer, shift the training emphasis

 

to maintaining strength and maximizing power, speed, and skill.

 

Contrast this systematic approach with the more common crash

 

weight training program started two months before the football

 

season. The athlete might gain strength, but there is little

 

improvement in power, speed, or football skills. The athlete wasted

 

the two critical months before the season doing exercises that

 

should have been done during the winter.

 

Keep a training diary. This is the best way of insuring a systematic

 

program. Athletes should write down their programs for the next 4

 

to 6 weeks and follow their progress in the diary. Tell the athlete to

 

carry it with them to all workouts. Record body weight, feelings each

 

day, exercises (sets, reps, time), morning heart rate, and

 

performances (scores of tennis match, times of intervals, vertical

 

jump distance). Athletes should write down tentative workouts in the

 

training diary for the next 6-weeks. Also, write down a rough workout plan for the next year. Writing down the plan in the training

 

diary will help athletes get where they want next month and next

 

year.

 

The training diary is an important part of being consistent in

 

workouts. Training diaries are essential to anyone serious about

 

fitness?regardless of whether they are serious athletes or

 

individuals who want to improve their fitness.

 

5. TRAIN ALL YEAR ROUND

 

Athletes who take too much time off from their exercise program will

 

lose the gains they have made. They also may be more susceptible

 

to injury if they attempt to get back in shape too rapidly. Establish a

 

year-round program; have specific goals and procedures for each

 

period of the year?and encourage the athlete to stick to them.

 

Make sure athletes have alternative training plans for inclement

 

weather or when there is restricted access to a weight room or

 

playing field. For example, if they are on a trip, they can substitute

 

calisthenic-type exercises?push-ups and knee bends?for...

 


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